Soybean is one of the most versatile crops grown around the world. It has a raft of applications including a source of vegetable oil for human food and industrial uses, as a valued protein source in livestock production, for use in preparing a range of human foods such as traditional foods like tofu and soy milk as well as novel uses as a protein isolate and for textured protein. Soybean also has an almost endless application in industrial products such lubricants, plastics, waxes and a range of intermediate chemicals including fatty acids.
Oil palm is an oil-producing crop of major importance at the global scale.
Palm oil and palm kernel oil are extracted from the oil palm’s fruit flesh and seed, respectively, providing ingredients for numerous edible and personal care products as well as feedstock for biofuels. Palm oil has a good stability at the high temperatures used in frying (usually 175–185 °C), because of its content of natural antioxidants, the absence of highly unsaturated fatty acids, and the moderate content of linoleic acid.
Olive oil is a vegetable oil obtained from the fruit of the olive tree. It is used in cooking, cosmetics, medicine, soaps, and as a fuel for traditional lamps. Olive oil can be produced by physical and mechanical or chemical means through grinding, pressing, centrifugation and physical filtration. The antioxidants in olive oil protect from cellular damage. Extra virgin olive oil has a bitter flavor, but it contains more antioxidants than other types, as it undergoes the least processing.
Sunflowers are considered oilseeds. Sunflowers are used for their cooking oil, meal and confectionary products. Oil and meal are processed from the same varieties. Confectionary seeds have their own characteristics for their specific purposes. Within the oil varieties, oil is extracted. Meal, a byproduct of this process, is used primarily as an ingredient in livestock feed rations. Sunflower oil has the highest Vitamin E content compared to all other vegetable oils.